【English /日本語】Read an English book📖英語の本を読もう📚Sway―chapter#3 The Value Attribution

🇺🇸English✕ 上級日本語🇯🇵

英語でSway を読もう📖#3


For English learners!

Hello everyone, how’s your English learning journey going?😃 Reading an English book is sometimes a long journey. You might inadvertently stop if you are alone. But no worries. You are at the right place already. I would like to explore an English book here so that you can try reading the book with me. We are not alone. Let’s enjoy a fun time reading!

The book, which I picked up this time, is called Sway, published by Ori Brafman and Rom Brafman. When I read this book for the first time, I was surprised that contrast that topic is academic and interesting, the volume of the book was not that big!!! The Amazon Kindle link below allows you to read chapter 1. Today, I am covering chapter 3.

You can check out my recommending strategy of reading as well as a bit of information about this book with a link below. Okay then, let’s get started📖






Ch.3 The Hobbit and the Missing Link

🪂第3章 ホビットと欠けた一本線

Grasp the structure🪂構成を把握する

To grasp the chapter, you just try to see its hierarchical configuration. I strongly recommend drawing it either physically or virtually.


How did the story begin?
  • In 2004, David Hamlin, from the National Geographic Society, called Dr. Dean Falk.
  • Dean Falk was embargoed for long but it is now lifted.
  • Hamlin returned from Indonesia, where he filmed the National Gerographic show.
  • Hamlin was recommended to talk to Falk by Morwood.
Falk’s findings in Flores: stone tools
  • Evolution is the great equalizer
  • Small species grow larger, and large ones become smaller.
  • The island effect phenomenon
  • A result of genetic adaptation to an environment
  • The bones discovered in Flores:
    • 6-feet-long lizards
    • giants rats
    • dwarf elephants
    • sophisticated stone tools: it implied the existence of a sentient being there.
Morwood and his findings
  • a little known Australian anthropologist
  • mind-boggling discovery
  • purported to solve the mystery of the stone tools
  • shed new light on a branch of evolution
The discovery of Neanderthal bone
  • Bone remains of an ancient hominid were found in Germany’s Neander Valley.
  • It was figured that the bones belong to an injured Rossian soldier.
  • Then, Darwin’s Origin of species cast things in a whole new light.
  • The skeleton was not quite human, but like a caveman.
    • a more pronounced nose
    • a thicker skull
    • a squatter body
  • It was another Homo genus spieces, Homoneanderthalsis.
The evolutionary theory
  • ✖ a linear progression
    • a gap from apes to Neanderthals became a holy grail: the missing link
  • ⭕ a complex family tree (the modern theory)
The discovery of Homo erectus
  • A precocious young Dutch, Eugene Dubois.
  • His discovery gave surprising implications for Dean Falk’s discovery.
  • Moved to the East Indies, where many prehistoric ape remains had been found.
  • In 1891, Dubois hit gold. He excavated a beautiful skull vault.
  • It seemed once been injured then subsequently healed.
    • implied a community.
  • His conclusion: a new prehistoric species, more advanced than apes but not quite human.
  • The size of skull was smaller than that of modern humans.
  • The scientific community ignored his findings.
  • It is today known as Homo erectus, but remained stashed in Dubois’s house for decades.
Why was Dubois dismissed?
  • Pull of commitment
    • The anthropologists were commited to a linear progression theory.
    • The brain size was too small to fit the mainstream argument at that time.
  • Value attribution
    • Dubois was dissmissed not based on objective data but on perceived value.
    • Dubois was a virtual no-name.
    • The European scientist looked down their noses at Java’s prospect of ancestor’s origin.
Morwood’s findings II
  1. found miniature hominids’ bones that had undergone the island effect: Homo floresiensis “the Hobbit”.
  2. Homo Sapiens and Homo floresiensis coexisted around 12,000 years ago, long after other Homos disappeared.
  3. Later, Falk confirmed that its brain has capability of abstract thought: a new species in the genus Homo.
  4. Modern anthropologists again became swayed even in the face of hard data.
  • 2004年、ナショナル・ジオグラフィックのデイビッド・ハムリンがディーン・フォルカ博士に電話する
  • フォルカ博士は長い間、 考古学界から追放されていたが、それが解除されたところ
  • ハムリンはインドネシアでのナショナル・ジオグラフィックの番組の撮影から帰国したところ
  • ハムリンはムアウッドからフォルカ博士と話すようにアドバイスされ電話をかけた
  • 進化は平等をもたらす偉大な力
  • 小さい種はより大きくなり、大きい種はより小さくなる
  • 島嶼とうしょう化現象
  • 環境への遺伝適応の結果
  • フローレスで発見されたもの…
    • 6フィートの長さのトカゲ
    • 巨大なねずみ
    • 矮小化した象
    • 洗練された石器(そこに道具を使う知的生命がいることの証)
  • あまり知られていないオーストラリアの人類学者
  • 皆を驚かせるような大きな発見
  • 石器の謎を解くもの
  • 進化の分野に新たな光を当てる快挙
  • 古代の類人猿の骨の残骸がドイツのネアンデル谷で発見される
  • 骨は負傷したロシアの兵士のものであると考えられた
  • その後、ダーウィンの『種の起源』はこの発見に全く新しい光を投じる
  • 骨は人間のようではなく、石器時代のヒトの骨のようだった
    • より顕著な鼻
    • よりぶ厚い頭蓋骨
    • かがんだ体
  • ホモ属の別の種:ホモネアンデルターレンシスであることがわかる
  • ✖一本道の進化過程
    • 類人猿からネアンデルタール人への進化の謎は至高の目標となった: 欠けた一本線
  • ⭕複雑な家系図のような進化過程(現代の説)
  • 早熟な若いオランダ人、ウジェーヌ・デュボワ
  • デュボワの発見はフォークの発見にとって驚くような暗示となる
  • 多くの先史時代の類人猿が発見されていたであったマレー諸島に移る
  • 1891年、デュボワは金を掘り当てる:美しい頭蓋骨の発掘
  • その頭蓋骨は、一度怪我をした後、治癒したようであり、コミュニティーの存在を示唆
  • 結論:新しい先史時代の種で、類人猿より進んでいるがヒトと同じでもない種
  • 頭蓋骨のサイズは現代のヒトより小さい
  • 科学界は彼の発見を無視
  • 今日では、ホモ・エレクトスとして知られる(それは、何十年もの間、デュボワ家に置かれ日の目を見なかった)
  • コミットメントの引力
    • 人類学者は一本線の理論に専念していた
    • 脳のサイズが小さ過ぎて、当時の主流の議論と合致しなかった
  • 価値帰属の法則
    • デュボワは実質無名だった
    • デュボワの客観的データは、当初の印象で割り当てられた価値観を前にして無力だった
    • ヨーロッパの科学者達は先祖の起源がヨーロッパではなくジャワにあるという見解を見下していた
  1. 島嶼化現象により矮小化した類人猿の骨の発見:ホモフローレンシエンシス、又の名を「ホビット」
  2. ホモサピエンスやホモフローレシエンシスは、他のホモ種族が姿を消したずっと後の約12,000年前まで共存していた
  3. 後に、フォルカは抽象的思考の能力を持っていると確認:ホモ属の新種と認定
  4. 現代の人類学者は確かな学術的情報を前にしても尚、合理的な判断から遠ざかってしまった

What is value attribution
  • When one encounter a new object, they assign the value to it. Then, this preconception shapes(alters) their further perception of it.
  • When one apply a price, people compromise their rationality.
  • tendency to imbue someone or something with certain qualities based on perceived value, rather than on objective data.
  • a quick mental shortcut to determine what’s worthy of one’s attention.
  • It can derail one’s objective and professional judgement.
  • It distorts one’s decision making.
Example for value attribution
  • 1. Joshua Bell’s violin concert in the subway with an ordinary-looking.
    • 1097 walked by while a few people paid their attention to it.
    • The commuters attributed the value they perceived to the quality of the performance.
  • 2. Nathan Handwerker’s Hotdogs in the Coney Island
    • It was too cheap for people to attribute its value.
  • 3. Charles Dawson
    • a British, respected, and well known scientist.
    • value attribution worked to led the scientists’ community to embrace an unscrupulous charlatan
    • dubbled Piltdown Man: hoax, forgery
    • value attribution made a crude specimen looked like a marveled finding.
    • two cherished beliefs encouraged people to believe it.
      • England had a civilization origin.
      • It fit the missing link concept: a humanlike brain and apelike features.
  • 4. SoBe Adrenaline Rush experiment.
    • the potent of a beverage that claims to increase mental acuity varies depends on value attribution.
      • first group, test without drink: middle
      • second group, test with $2.89 drink: slightly better
      • third group, test with $0.89 drink: significantly worse
    • When you get something at a discount, the positive expectations don’t kick in as strongly.
  • 5. Theater season pass experiment.
    • The ticket price affects enjoyment of the performance.
      • first group, pay $15: significantly more shows
      • second group, $13: less shows
      • third group, $7: less shows equally

  • 新しいものごとに遭遇すると、そこに価値が割り当てられる。この先入観はそのものごとに対する人のさらなる認識を形作ったり影響を与えたりする。
  • あるものに価格を設定すると、人の合理的判断が損なわれる
  • ものごとに対して客観的情報よりも先入観によってその価値を植え付ける傾向
  • 何が注意に値する価値があるものなのかを判断するための、簡単な判断のショートカット
  • 客観的で専門的な判断を狂わせる可能性がある
  • 意思決定を歪める
  • 1.ラッシュ時の地下鉄でのジョシュ・ベルのバイオリンコンサート
    • 数人の人々がそれに注意を払った一方、1097人は通り過ぎた
    • 通勤者は、知覚した情報からパフォーマンスの質を決定した
  • 2. コネイ島のノーザンハンドウォーカのホットドッグ
    • 安すぎる価格は人にそのものの価値が低いと判断させる
  • 3. チャールズ・ドーソン
    • イギリス人、尊敬され、よく知られた科学者
    • 価値帰属の法則は科学界に無法な嘘つき者を受け入れさせてしまう結果を招いた
    • ピルトダウン人:でっち上げた捏造
    • 価値帰属の法則の影響で、粗悪な標本のはずのものが驚異的な発見のように見えた
    • 2つの希望に沿った思考が人々にそれを信じるように促した
      • イギリスに文明の起源があるはず
      • 欠けた一本線を埋めるようなもののはず➜人間のような脳と類人猿のような特徴の体
  • 4.SoBeアドレナリンドリンクの実験
  • 精神的鋭敏さを高めると主張する飲料の効力は、価値の帰属のされ方によって変わる
    • Group1:ドリンク無しでテスト:標準
    • Group2: 2.89ドルのドリンクでテスト:わずかに標準より良い結果
    • Group3: 0.89ドルのドリンクでテスト:大幅に悪い結果
  • 何かを割引で手に入れたとき、人はそれに前向きな期待をしなくなる
  • 5.劇場のシーズンパスの実験
  • チケットの価格はパフォーマンスの楽しさを左右します
    • Group1: 15ドル…より高い頻度
    • Group2: 13ドル…低い頻度
    • Group3:7ドル…Group 2と同様の低い頻度

Summarize the chapter concisely🪂章を簡潔にまとめる

To summarize, check the hierarchical configuration and make sentences with important points of each.


When people encounter a new object, they assign its value based on not objective data but perceived value. This preconception determines what’s worthy of one’s attention and lets people derail their objective and professional judgment and distorts their decision-making.

Even though the anthropological community has held a history of irrational judgments towards past many discoveries, it didn’t help for them to learn from their lessons. When Dean Falk tried to prove the existence of Homo froresiensis in the Flores island, it repeated as well as the discovery of Homo erectus by Eugene Dubois.



Make questions to discuss🪂ディスカッション用の質問を作ろう

To discuss, make questions. It gives you a great topic to talk about in English.


Thematic question テーマに関する質問

What is the message beyond this presentation? What are the greater issues or questions this piece deals with?

The presentation is not directly referenced in the question. There are many possible answers found outside of the presentation, but it’s a starting point.



My opinion: In this chapter, the authors consistently narrated how miserably the anthropological community has been swayed from the objective and professional judgment due to value attribution as if it is clearly emphasized that there is no way to avoid it.

In his book Range, David Epstein argues that it is critical for people to have a range of perspectives. A single long career such as a scholar or a scientist can easily become a narrow mindset and susceptible to refuse something beyond their imagination. It is introduced in the book, that a Nobel laureate suggests reading an article outside their field every day or have avocations outside of their vocation. Ultimately, not sticking to one career is the reasonable remedy for this problem. However, it is also so hard to change your plan because of another psychological force: the pull of commitment. The answer is, to keep yourself open to various professions or perspectives throughout your life.


デイビッド・エプスタインは、著書 『Range』の中で、さまざまな視点を持つことの重要性を唱えています。学者や科学者などに多く見られる単一の長いキャリアは、人を簡単に狭い考え方に導き、自身の想像をこえた何かに遭遇した際に拒否することに陥りやすくなります。『Range』では、ノーベル賞受賞者の提案を紹介しています。例えば、毎日自分の分野以外の記事を読むことや、自分の職業以外の職業を持つことなどがあります。究極的に言って、1つのキャリアに固執しないことは、この問題の合理的な救済策だと言えるでしょう。しかし、別の心理的な力にも注意してください。コミットメントの引力は、あなたのがキャリア転身をしたいときの大きな妨げになります。価値基準の法則に対応するための方法は、人生を通してさまざまな職業や考え方に対して自分自身をオープンに保ち続けることです。

five questions for discussion🪂ディスカッション用の5つの質問

How does this make me feel? What does it remind me of?

There are many correct answers that are related to one’s experience; they can be found outside of the text/speech.

  • Have you ever…?
  • Does it make you angry when…?
  • Which part did you like?
  • How hard was this to understand?



  • こんな経験ありますか
  • こんなとき、怒った気持ちになりますか
  • どのパートが気に入りましたか
  • これを理解するのは難しかったですか

What does it say?

One correct answer is found in the text.

  • Who is …?
  • What happens first?
  • Where are …?
  • What is the difinition of this word?



  • これは誰?
  • 何が最初に起きた?
  • これはどこですか?
  • この言葉の定義はなんですか?

What does it mean? How are the parts connected? what is the reason for people’s actions?

There is more than one possible answer, but the viewer’s opinion is based directly on the text.

  • Why did the speaker…?
  • What can we say about the speaker’s point of view?
  • What is the significance of the title?
  • What did the speaker mean when they said…?



  • どうして話者は...?
  • 話者の視点について、どんなことが言えますか。
  • タイトルにはどんな意味があるでしょう。
  • 話者が...といったのはどういう意味でしょう。

What is the message beyond this presentation? What are the greater issues or questions this piece deals with?

The presentation is not directly referenced in the question. There are many possible answers found outside of the presentation, but it’s a starting point.

  • How do people…?
  • Why do people…?
  • What is the truth about…?



  • 人々はどうやって...?
  • どうして人々は...?
  • ...の真実は何でしょう?

How effective is the presentation in whole or in part? Why did the speaker/author make these choices and how well do they work?

Many possible answers can be found outside of the presentation but it’s a reference.

  • Is it realistic when …?
  • How does the speaker use … to show …?
  • Would this be better if …?
  • Is the speaker biased towards/against…?



  • この箇所は現実味がありますか。
  • 話者がこの...をどのように表現しましたか。
  • もし...であればもっとよかったですか。
  • 話者は...の考え方に偏っていますか。

Expressions and terms🪂覚えておきたい単語・表現

Pick some terms that you are unfamiliar with from sentences you high-lightened and memorize them because you need them to discuss this chapter!!


termexample sentence
preconceptionThe preconception is the assigned value when you encounter a new object or someone.
purportThe finding purported to shed new light on a branch of our evolution.
imbueIt is a tendency to imbue someone or something with certain qualities based on perceived value, rather than on objective data.
embraceValue attribution worked to led the scientists’ community to embrace an unscrupulous charlatan.

How did you like chapter three? Besides loss aversion and the pull of commitment, value attribution is introduced with a very interesting history of the anthological community. Did you notice that scientists are the people who are susceptible to be swayed from objective thinking? It is so unsettling truth that scientists are swayed easily psychologically. If you are interested in the solution for this, please read Epstein’s book Range.