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【English /日本語】Read an English book📖英語の本を読もう📚Sway―chapter#1 The Loss Aversion

英語でSway を読もう📖#1


For English learners!

Hello everyone, how’s your English learning journey going?😃 Reading an English book is sometimes a long journey. You might inadvertently stop if you are alone. But no worries. You are at the right place already. I would like to explore an English book here so that you can try reading the book with me. We are not alone. Let’s enjoy a fun time reading!

The book, which I picked up this time, is called Sway, published by Ori Brafman and Rom Brafman. When I read this book for the first time, I was surprised that contrast that topic is academic and interesting, the volume of the book was not that big!!! The Amazon Kindle link below allows you to read chapter 1. Today, I am covering chapter 1.

You can check out my recommending strategy of reading as well as a bit of information about this book with a link below.

Okay then, let’s get started📖






Ch.1 Anatomy of an Accident🪂第1章 事故の分析

Grasp the structure🪂構成を把握する

To grasp the chapter, you just try to see its hierarchical configuration. I strongly recommend drawing it either physically or virtually.


Captain’s characteristics
  • He was a seasoned pilot.
  • He was punctual.
  • He made spotless record.
  • His hallmark made by his smooth precision.
  • He had a good reputation.

What happened?
  • A terrorist bomb had exploded at his destination airport.
  • He had to land on another airport 50 miles away.
  • He wanted to minimize the delay, then fueled the airplane.
  • He tried to land off without takeoff permission.
  • It was foggy and Van Zanten did not see another airplane Pan Am 1736. “Nature threw its own wrench into the plan.”
  • Explosion happened. 584 people died. It was by far the deadliest airplane collision in history.
  • ベテランパイロット
  • 時間厳守
  • 完璧な記録
  • 滑らかで精度の高いオペレーション
  • 高い評判
  • テロリストが目的地の空港を爆破
  • 50マイル離れた空港への着陸する
  • 遅れを最小化するため、そこで給油を先に行う
  • 離陸許可を取らずに離陸する
  • 霧による視界不良により、機長には別の機体Pan Am1736が視認できないままだった “自然は人の思い通りにはさせてくれない”
  • 爆発により584人が死亡し、航空業界史上最大の事故となる。

Example of loss aversion
  • Eggs price study by professor Putler.
    • People hate more losing a good deal rather than getting a good deal.
    • it is not asymmetric.
  • AOL: internet price
    • People worry the potential loss.
    • The fear of a monstrous bill looms, and we sign up the unlimited plan.
  • Rental car industry.
    • Potential loss loomed larger.
    • Companies have capitalized on this powerful effect.
  • Investment
    • Developed an aversion to loss and lost the chance to sell stocks.
    • A loss made people oblivious to the risks that they were taking. (Being more susceptible to taking a dangerous risk.)
    • Overreacted a potential loss.
  • パトラー教授の卵の価格調査
    • 人はお得な値段で買い物をしたときの喜びよりも、損な値段で買い物をしたときの落胆をより大きく感じる。
    • 得だと感じる喜び v.s. 損だと感じる落胆。同じ振れ幅ではなく損のほうが大きい。非対称。
  • AOL:インターネット価格
    • 人は可能性のある損失を心配する。
    • 大きな額の請求書が来ることを恐れて、無制限プランをより好む。
  • レンタカー業界
    • 潜在的な損失はどんどん大きくなっていくように感じる。
    • レンタカー企業はこの強力な効果を利用し、保険の掛け金で収入を得ている。
  • 投資
    • 損失への嫌悪感が生まれると、資産を売る機会を失う。
    • 損失嫌悪は​​人に危険なリスクをリスクを冒していることを気付かなくさせる=危険なリスクを冒しやすくなる。
    • 潜在的な損失への過剰反応。

Summarize the chapter concisely🪂章を簡潔にまとめる

To summarize, check the hierarchical configuration and make sentences with important points of each.


The accident that the KLM plane burst into a fiery explosion tells us that our behavior and decision-making are influenced by an array of psychological undercurrents and that they are much more powerful and pervasive than most of us realize. In chapter 1, the authors describe how loss aversion makes people more susceptible to taking a dangerous risk when potential loss seems meaningful and looms larger. When Captain Van Zanten had so much on the line, he became oblivious to the usual risks that usually he could pay attention to and got swept into an irrational decision.


Make questions to discuss🪂ディスカッション用の質問を作ろう

To discuss, make questions. It gives you a great topic to talk about in English.


Evaluative question 全体的な評価についての質問

How effective is the presentation in whole or in part? Why did the speaker/author make these choices and how well do they work?

Many possible answers can be found outside of the presentation but it’s a reference.



My opinion: I suppose there are multiple reasons the authors picked this topic. Firstly, they wanted to emphasize that this unseen psychological undercurrent can happen to anyone. Therefore, Captain Van Zanten was a good example since he had a good reputation. It was hard to believe such an experienced pilot made this wrong deadly decision. Secondly, this accident includes another psychological force. It was useful for the authors to attract readers with this historically deadly mysterious accident.


five questions for discusssion🪂ディスカッション用の5つの質問

How does this make me feel? What does it remind me of?

There are many correct answers that are related to one’s experience; they can be found outside of the text/speech.

  • Have you ever…?
  • Does it make you angry when…?
  • Which part did you like?
  • How hard was this to understand?



  • こんな経験ありますか
  • こんなとき、怒った気持ちになりますか
  • どのパートが気に入りましたか
  • これを理解するのは難しかったですか

What does it say?

One correct answer is found in the text.

  • Who is …?
  • What happens first?
  • Where are …?
  • What is the difinition of this word?



  • これは誰?
  • 何が最初に起きた?
  • これはどこですか?
  • この言葉の定義はなんですか?

What does it mean? How are the parts connected? what is the reason for people’s actions?

There is more than one possible answer, but the viewer’s opinion is based directly on the text.

  • Why did the speaker…?
  • What can we say about the speaker’s point of view?
  • What is the significance of the title?
  • What did the speaker mean when they said…?



  • どうして話者は...?
  • 話者の視点について、どんなことが言えますか。
  • タイトルにはどんな意味があるでしょう。
  • 話者が...といったのはどういう意味でしょう。

What is the message beyond this presentation? What are the greater issues or questions this piece deals with?

The presentation is not directly referenced in the question. There are many possible answers found outside of the presentation, but it’s a starting point.

  • How do people…?
  • Why do people…?
  • What is the truth about…?



  • 人々はどうやって...?
  • どうして人々は...?
  • ...の真実は何でしょう?

How effective is the presentation in whole or in part? Why did the speaker/author make these choices and how well do they work?

Many possible answers can be found outside of the presentation but it’s a reference.

  • Is it realistic when …?
  • How does the speaker use … to show …?
  • Would this be better if …?
  • Is the speaker biased towards/against…?



  • この箇所は現実味がありますか。
  • 話者がこの...をどのように表現しましたか。
  • もし...であればもっとよかったですか。
  • 話者は...の考え方に偏っていますか。

Expressions and terms🪂覚えておきたい単語・表現

Pick some terms that you are unfamiliar with from sentences you high-lightened and memorize them because you need them to discuss this chapter!!


termexample sentence
capitalizeCompanies like Avis and Hertz have capitalized on this powerful effect.
loomAs the delay grew longer, the potential loss loomed larger.
susceptibleBecause so much was on the line, he was even more susceptible to taking a dangerous risk.
on the lineThe more there is on the line, the easier it is to get swept into an irrational decision.
現金化げんきんかするAvis やHertzといった会社はこの強力な効果を現金化している。

Welcome on board for reading Sway. I am really thrilled that you read this now. I really like this book. For the first and the foremost, it is relatively short!!!! You can complete reading it! However, at the same time, it provides very interesting topics. Let us explore what psychological forces we haven’t noticed.